# Howto Write a Thesis using LaTeX: Custom commands

The tweaks presented in this post are in my opinion the most useful ones. When writing a thesis, there are typically a few expression and words that appear at many many places in across the document. I wrote my thesis about a slime mold called Physarum Polycephalum and I can’t count how often I needed to write this name in my thesis. Lazy as I am, I didn’t want to write this nasty word each time and also I wanted to avoid misspelling of it.

Fortunately, LaTeX gives the opportunity to define commands by yourself. This means, you can define a new command which is inserting a self defined string and use it across your document. To do so, simply write:

\newcommand{\phys}{\textit{Physarum Polycephalum}}

The expression in the first curly braces defines the command name, I called it \phys, and the expression in the second curly braces is defining the command to be executed. Here I want the string Physarum Polycephalum to be printed in italic style. So far so good, but where exactly is the benefit?

At any place in your document where you want to insert Physarum Polycephalum, no matter if it within a text section or a caption of an image, you simple write

 My topic is about \phys{}, which is a slime mold.

Please note the the curly braces after the command are very necessary in order to get LaTeX manage white spaces after the inserted text correctly!

Despite from saving time and reducing misspellings, there is another great benefit of using this technique. It allows you to easily change these word at only one position. Image I finished writing my whole thesis and after that, my Prof tells me that polycephalum should be written in lower case, I am unbelievably thankful that I do NOT need to go through my hundreds of pages and search for positions where I need to replace it. I only need to change it at one simple position!

By the way, one typical command I use in all my documents is

\newcommand{\etal}{\textit{et.~al.}}

Another trick that is somehow related to this topic, turned out to be very useful for me while writing the thesis. I defined three little commands and used them to give nodes to myself in the document:

\newcommand{\note}[1]{\color{red}(#1!)\color{black}}
\newcommand{\missref}{\note{[REF]}}
\newcommand{\todo}[1]{\textcolor{blue}{[Todo: #1]}}

The first command inserts a note for me in red color, so that I cannot miss the note on reviewing the document. The second one is used for indicating that there is a reference missing and that I need to insert it later on. But please, I really recommend to insert references on the fly! Believe me, after weeks or month of writing your thesis, the very last thing you want to do is inserting 100+ references before submitting your thesis. I used the third command to remind myself that there is something left to do. Have a look at the screenshot of the document using these commands, isn’t that really helpful for reviewing?

The command of this text part is looking like

Sch\"on \etal{} \missref{} have been scientifically proven that the
psychological stress during writing your PhD thesis leaves a disorder
from that you never will retire completely \note{Better double check
that!}.
\todo{Search for and include some examples here, maybe a graphic!}

# Howto Write a Thesis using LaTeX: Algorithms

People writing their thesis, paper or any other report with LaTeX tend to have some connection to programming. Thus, it is not uncommon to include some algorithms in the document. I prefer using the algorithmic package for providing source code. To include the package, add the following lines to the preamble in file Thesis.tex.

\usepackage{algorithm}
\usepackage{algorithmic}

Inserting an algorithm is then pretty straight forward, you only need to know the algorithmic specific commands, for a description, see for example http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Algorithms.

\begin{algorithm}[ht]
\caption{See how easy it is to provide algorithms}
\label{myFirstAlgorithm}
\begin{algorithmic}
\REQUIRE $a$
\STATE $b = 0$
\STATE $x \leftarrow 1:10$
\FORALL{x}
\STATE $b = b+a$
\ENDFOR
\RETURN $b$
\end{algorithmic}
\end{algorithm}

Algorithms can be referenced like an image, by calling:

??

If you like to include a list of algorithms at the end of your thesis, simply write

\listofalgorithms

at the position you want the list to appear.

# Howto Write a Thesis using LaTeX: Export Scalable Graphs from Excel to Inkscape

The trick with creating nice looking and scalable graphs is the same as discussed in Howto Write a Thesis using LaTeX: Generate Resolution Independent Figures Using Inkscape. Instead of saving the graph as ‘common’ image, meaning as bitmap, jpeg or png, graphs should also be generated as vector graphics.

Unfortunately, Excel does not provide an obvious way to export graphs as vector graphics (at least, I do not know any). But, fortunately, there is a little workaround which I will describe in this little tutorial.

First, assume we have some data present in an Excel sheet and generated any plot from the data. In the example below, I put in some data from the top of my head (without any scientific verification!) on how probable it is to went totally crazy, formatting your hard drive, destroy all your lab equipment and move to any abbey in Tibet for the rest of your live dependent on the amount of time you spend already to prepare your thesis.

To export this nice and somehow scary graph from Excel and to import it in our LaTeX document, we first need to select the graph by clicking on it, you should see a border around the figure. Note that it is important to select the figure only as we just want to export the graph and not the whole document!

Next, we select File->Save As … from the context menu and save it as PDF! See the screenshot below (Sorry, my installation of Excel is German)

That’s all that needs to be done in Excel. Actually, we would be easily able to import the PDF just generated into our LaTeX document, but there is some beautification needed which is best to be done with Inkscape.

To do so, we first open Inkscape and select File->Open (do NOT use Import!) from the context menu. Browse to the recently generated PDF file and press the Open button.

It might take a few seconds until the next dialogue should pop up. Do not touch any configuration at the import dialogue, simply press OK. The graph may be placed like that:

Note that the imported graph behaves like it would have been created with Inkscape meaning that you can easily click elements, remove or edit them. I personally do not like the grey border around the graph, so I remove it by clicking the border and removing it. You might want to change the colour, axis titles, font size or whatever…

Next, we go to File->Document Properties… to set the page size to fit the graph with some spacing of 10px.

Last, we save the plot as PDF file by selecting File->Save as from the context menu.
Remind that you need to select PDF as file type. That’s it, we just created a resolution independent scalable graph with Excel and Inkscape. Of course, this PDF can be included in our LaTeX document in the same way as any other image, namely by writing:

A scary and maybe exaggerated Graph is shown in Figure ??.
\begin{figure}[ht]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{fig/FreakingOut.pdf}
\caption[Short caption]{Detailed caption}
\label{fig:imageGraph}
\end{figure}

Also, the graphicx package should be added to the preamble of the Thesis.tex file:

\usepackage{graphicx}

# Howto Write a Thesis using LaTeX: Excel to LaTeX Table

Generating nice tables in plain LaTeX can be really annoying as it is very hard to get an overview of columns and rows for raw text. One possibility would be to use a WYSIWYG editor that comes with many development environments.

You can find a nice tool for generating tables in TexMaker by selecting Quick Tabular from the Wizard menu item.

But, in most cases, we do not want to insert tables manually. Instead, most of the data already exists in any other program and we would like to generate a table from our existing data. Also, there are much more specialised application for editing and generating tables, one and probably the most common one is Microsoft Excel.

Fortunately, there is a great tool that let’s you export your existing Excel table to LaTeX code, called  Excel2LaTeX!

# 1. Install Software

Go to http://www.ctan.org/tex-archive/support/excel2latex/ and download the latest Excel2LaTeX.xla file. Next, open the file with Excel.
You might get asked if you want to activate Makros and this is a potential security issue. As we know what we are about to do, we accept Makros. And that’s it, the add on is already installed!

Note that the Add-Ins tab needs to be activated for some Excel versions separately!

Now comes the easy part, select the area of your table you want to export to LaTeX and click the Convert table to LaTeX button. The following dialog pops up:

Click either the Copy to Clipboard button to copy the LaTeX text or save it to a file by choosing Save to File:.
For some reason, copying the text snippet did not work for me on Windows 8, so I had to copy it manually!

Next, as we have the table as LaTeX code in our Clipboard, we only need to paste it to our LaTeX file. Navigate to the position where you want to insert the table in your TexMaker file and paste the content. Note that you might need to load the following packages in the preamble depending on how fancy your table is styled:

\usepackage{booktabs}
\usepackage{color}

The generated code for the example table looks like:

% Table generated by Excel2LaTeX from sheet 'Tabelle1'
\begin{table}[htbp]
\centering
\begin{tabular}{rrr}
\toprule
\multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{Name}} & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{Age}} & \multicolumn{1}{c}{\textbf{Score}} \\
\midrule
Maria & 23    & 1 \\
Thomas & 21    & 0.78 \\
\textit{Alicia} & 19    & 0.27 \\
Mark  & 31    & 0.45 \\
&       &  \\
\bottomrule
\end{tabular}%
\end{table}%

Note that you also might want to update the table caption:

Cool, we just inserted a table from Excel to our LaTeX document! Wasn’t that much easier than typing it yourself?

Please also note, that the newly inserted table is automatically listed in the list of tables we inserted at the end of the document.

# Howto write a thesis using LaTeX, Part 3: Tips and Tricks

We’ve already seen in part 1 and part 2 of this tutorial, how to install and set up software components and howto organize folders and files. Also, we have created a basic structure of our thesis. In this final part 3, I will give you some tips and tricks that made my live easier while creating my PhD thesis.

To be easier found by search engines, I’m gonna create a separate post for each single tip, trick or hack, whatever name you prefer. But, in order to preserve the scope of this tutorial, we will see how to include the generated stuff into our test thesis.

So, here you go, a list of tips, tricks and hacks helping you with your thesis:

Assume you have generated an image like described in the link above, you can use the following code to include it to your thesis:

An example figure is shown in Figure ??.
\begin{figure}[ht]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{fig/image.pdf}
\caption[Short caption]{Detailed caption}
\label{fig:image}
\end{figure}

And of course, we need to import the graphicx package in the preamble of the Thesis.tex file:

\usepackage{graphicx}

Thesis Template

If you are a student of the faculty “Biologie und Vorklinische Medizin der Universität Regensburg” in Germany, you can also download the predefined title page:
UR-Titlepage
Thesis Template with UR title page included

I hope you enjoyed reading this tutorial. Now you are all set, you are prepared to write a thesis so fancy that you supervisor is forced to give you the best mark available without reading even a single word of you’ve written. I’m just kidding, of course, content is most important, but at least, you do not have to figure out every problem with LaTeX on your own and you can invest your time on writing text.

If you like this tutorial, please recommend it and leave a command, if you don’t like, tell me what you want me to improve or just don’t tell anybody 😉

# Howto Write a Thesis using LaTeX: Generate Resolution Independent Figures Using Inkscape

Do you really want to have that Golum of a figure in your thesis? Of course not!
Any figure you create for your thesis should be a vector graphic. Remind from part 1 of this tutorial, that there is a general difference between vector graphics and “common” images. Vector graphics do not save pixel values, but generate a description of the image, like you would say: “There is a circle in the left part of the image and another one in the right part. Both have a black border and gray background. The circles are further connected by an arrow.” Well, the real description might be a bit more accurate and fortunately, LaTeX can understand that description if we provide it in the correct format.

Sorry friends, but this is not going to be a tutorial in Inkscape, you will find many of them in the web. This is more a guide on how to use a vector graphic in LaTeX. Let’s assume we have drawn an image in Inkscape that may look like:

First, we have to resize the document to the content to avoid extra spacing around the image. From the top menu, select File->Document Properties. A new dialog will pop up. Notice that there is an area called Resize page to content:

I usually use margins of 10.00 at each side. Then, simple press the “Resize page …” button and you will see that your document has been resized to your content. Be aware not to select a specific object while resizing, otherwise the document will be resized to the object size.

Once the image is ready, you can save the image as PDF by selecting File->Save As and choosing “Save as type” to be “Portable Document Format (*.pdf)”. You can simply use the default PDF setting and click OK in the dialog shown next. And that’s it! Inkscape is automatically generating a vector graphic based PDF. Please note that the default format for vector graphics is SVG, but as we want to use the graphic with LaTeX, we prefer to have a PDF file.

Let’s save the PDF image to the images subfolder (called fig) of our thesis project folder and name it image.pdf. All we have to do now, is to display the image in the thesis. For example, lets show the image in our “Boring Stuff” chapter. We are including figures by LaTeX command:

\chapter{Boring Stuff}
An example figure is shown in Figure ??.
\begin{figure}[ht]
\centering
\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{fig/image.pdf}
\caption[Short caption]{Detailed caption}
\label{fig:image}
\end{figure}

To get this working, we need to import the graphicx package in the preamble of the Thesis.tex file:

\usepackage{graphicx}

Once we translated the file to pdf (twice to update also the reference), we will see the figure in the Thesis.pdf file.

Please note, that also the list of figures at the end of the document has been updated and now includes an entry with the short description of the figure. To see the benefit of the vector graphic, here is a part of the image within the document, rescaled to 500%:

As you see, the figure can be scaled to any dimension without loosing resolution.

# Howto write a thesis using LaTeX, Part 2: Create the document structure

In part 1 of this tutorial, we managed to set up software that helps us creating our thesis with LaTeX. It’s time to get started with the real LaTeX stuff. This is not going to be an introduction to LaTeX as there are plenty of very good LaTeX tutorials; you can easily find them using google. This tutorial is rather a guide on which packages are helpful to be used, how you can organize your files, how to insert graphics, create tables and write algorithms in LaTeX. To understand the commands provided in this tutorial, I strongly recommend doing some general introduction to LaTeX first!

# 1. Folder structure

We start with creating a new folder (our project directory), preferably directly using our cloud service. I use Dropbox and hence create a new folder in my Dropbox folder called Thesis. Within this folder, let’s add some additional folders:

• fig (will contain all figure)
• tex (will contain LaTeX files)
• bib (will contain bibliography files)

2. Creating the main LaTeX document

First, open Texmaker and click New icon to create a new file. Each Latex document has to define a document class, indicating what kind of document we are about to create, this may be a book, a thesis or even a presentation. We are using document class report and define it by writing

\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{report}
\begin{document}
Hello World!
\end{document}

to the very top of the file. We defined the document to be a report and added some additional parameters. As I am European, I use A4 paper size and a default font size of 12pt. If you prefer using the letter paper size, just replace a4paper with letterpaper. Next, save the document into your projects root directory as Thesis.tex. The directory should now look like

Please note that the little green check mark is indicating that the files are in sync with my Dropbox account.

Now we are going to translate the document by Tools->PDFLaTeX from the top menu or by simply pressing [F6] on the keyboard. If you have activated the messages and log window in Texmaker, you see some output written there. For sure, you will need the outputs later if you note that you have some errors in your LaTeX code and the messages window is presenting shiny red error messages. If we have a look at our project directory, we note that some additional files have been created by LaTeX. Don’t care what they mean at all! The only thing to note is that there is a PDF document called Thesis.pdf which can be displayed directly in Texmaker on the most right column. The PDF view is refreshed by selecting Tools->View PDF from the menu or by clicking [F7]. Doing so, Texmaker shows a PDF file containing only the text Hello World!

Let’s create the main document structure for our thesis. Many universities do provide LaTeX templates, but unfortunately, mine did not. So I created by own structure to be:

• Title page
• Abstract
• Introduction
• Material
• Some real boring stuff for at least 99.9% of people
• Discussion
• Conclusion
• Acknowledgment
• Appendices
• List of Algorithms
• List of Figures
• List of Tables
• Bibliography

Let’s model this structure in our main Thesis.tex file. First we create the table of contents which is easily done by putting the command

\tableofcontents

\chapter{Introduction}
\section{Motivation}
I was motivated to write a Phd thesis because I did not want to work directly after finishing my study
\section{Organization}
This thesis is organized as follows, ...

to Introduction.tex and save the file. As you note, we have just created a new chapter containing two sections. All we have to do know is to import the file into our main document. Thus, write

\input{tex/introduction}\newpage\cleardoublepage

Great, we just started creating our document structure. Lets put all the other chapters in there as well

\input{tex/material}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/boring}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/discussion}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/conclusion}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/acknowledgement}\newpage\cleardoublepage

and don’t forget to create the files, add \chapter{Some Name} and save them. Translate again. By the way, there is a nice trick that you can translate the master document by pressing [F6] even if there is another document open. Just open the Thesis.tex file and click Options->Define Current Document as ‘Master Document’ in Texmaker:

Now, our document is already 7 pages long and contains a table of contents. But I don’t like how the headlines and chapters look like. Thus, I want to change the style of my document and I prefer to use a package called fncychap. The package comes with a bunch of styles where I like Sonny the most. A package is used in LaTeX by calling the \usepackage{} command. In Texmaker, simply write

\usepackage[Sonny]{fncychap}

in the preamble of your document, that is before \begin{document}. The command tells to use the fncychap package with parameter Sonny. If you try to translate, you might note one of the biggest benefits with using Texmaker and MiKTeX. As you are attempting to use a package that is not yet installed, you are asked if MiKTeX should do that for you.

Click install and wait until installation and translation has finished. Updating the PDF will show a newly designed document. Another useful package is loaded by

\usepackage{fullpage}

and leads to the usage more wider page width.

Next we are adding the additional lists to the end of the document:

\listofalgorithms
\listoffigures
\listoftables

where the list of algorithms needs package

\usepackage{algorithm}

Obviously, the lists are empty for now.

The bibliography is handled a bit different. LaTeX uses so called BibTeX files that contain entries for papers, books and other published stuff. The idea behind is that you have only one big BibTeX file (.bib) with all your publications in it. LaTeX is calling BibTeX with references to the entries using a unique key and BibTeX is creating a file containing only the referenced entries. LaTeX further uses the created file and inserts the entries into the document. Although, it is possible to add several bib files. You can edit the bib files using software or insert entries manually to the bib file. I prefer doing it manually this saves me the time of importing and exporting all the time. Thus, I open the bib file in Notepad++ and copy the references by hand. Let’s create a simply scientific article reference. The BibTeX code might look like

@article{schoen2013,
author  = {Torsten Schoen and Co Author},
title   = {Ten things you better not say to your wife},
journal = {Optimizing Husbands},
volume  = {21},
year    = {2013},
pages   = {85--91},
}

We simply open Notepad++, create a new file, put the code above in there and save it in the Thesis\bib folder by name Literature.bib. Below our lists, we add the bibliography:

\bibliography{bib/Literature}\newpage\cleardoublepage

Further, we have to define a bibliography style in the preamble

\bibliographystyle{plain}

where I prefer the plain style. We can cite entries of the bibliography using the \cite{} command and providing the unique key. For example, write in any of you chapter files:

We refer to Sch\"on \cite{schoen2013} for things you ...

On translating the document, a warning is shown in the message console as the key schoen2013 cannot be found. This is because we have to run BibTeX first by pressing [F11] in Texmaker. Again, as there are references you have to press [F6] and [F11] in turn again and again until the citation finally works. Updating the PDF after persistent pressing of [F6] and [F11] until all warnings disappeared, we can see that a bibliography with one entry has been added at the end of the document and in the text part, \cite{schoen2013} has been replaced with its related number.

A nice source to find papers and get them directly in BibTex format is to search at Google’s scientific search engine called Scholar. If you do a search, you can click on “cite”

and a export citation window appears where you can export the entry as BibTeX code to simply copy and paste it into your bib file.

4. The title page

Next step is to add a title page. Most universities require to use a predefined title page so as my one did. The title page actually consists of two page, the real title page and a page with some formalities. Of course, the title page is nothing else than a normal LaTeX file. Hence, we simply create a new file in our tex folder and name it Title.tex. The only difference is that we should define the title page as title page by inserting:

\begin{titlepage}
This is my thesis!
\end{titlepage}

Anything that should be part of the title page is written between the tags. Further we have to input the file into Thesis.tex by writing

\input{tex/title}\newpage\thispagestyle{plain}

right after \begin{document}. Next, we gonna add some empty pages between the title, abstract and table of contents and change the numbering to be roman. The real Arabic page numbering of the thesis therefore start just with the first page of the introduction.
This is a bit more complicated and I will simply provide the code without any explanations. The complete Thesis.tex file is hence defined as:

\documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{report}

\usepackage[Sonny]{fncychap}
\usepackage{fullpage}
\usepackage{algorithm}
\bibliographystyle{plain}
\setcounter{secnumdepth}{3}
\setcounter{tocdepth}{3}
\pagenumbering{roman}

\begin{document}

\newcounter{rom}

\input{tex/title}\newpage\thispagestyle{plain}

\newpage\thispagestyle{plain}\setcounter{page}{3}

\tableofcontents

\newpage\thispagestyle{plain}~
\clearpage
\pagenumbering{arabic}

\input{tex/introduction}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/material}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/boring}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/discussion}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/conclusion}\newpage\cleardoublepage
\input{tex/acknowledgement}\newpage\cleardoublepage

\listofalgorithms
\listoffigures
\listoftables

\bibliography{bib/Literature}\newpage\cleardoublepage

\end{document}

This is the end of the second part of this tutorial. You can download related source as zip file here:
TS thesis template Part 2

In the next part, I will give you some useful tips and tricks that helped me a lot:

==> Continue with Part 3

# Howto write a thesis using LaTeX, Part 1: Setting up software components

In this tutorial, I will explain howto write a thesis (which may be a master, PhD or any other thesis) using the document markup language LaTeX. I assume that most of you are using Windows as operating system, thus I did a fresh installation of Windows 8 and I will use it throughout this tutorial. Nevertheless, I think if you are using an older version of Windows, there might be no difference. For you guys using Mac Os X or Linux based systems, you may use the tutorial as well, but figure out howto install software components on your system by yourself. I am using Ubuntu and a MacBook, too, and will probably add some more tutorials for these systems soon. Ok, so we have a fresh raw installation of Windows 8, no additional software installed. Of course, before start writing anything for your thesis, you will have to get some fancy and helpful software. Here is an overview of software component that will be used throughout this tutorial where installation will be explained in the following sections.

• MikTex (includes everything you need to run Latex)
• Texmaker (Helpful editor to write Latex code)
• Inkscape (Vector graphic program)
• Dropbox (Save your work in the cloud)
• Notepad++ (A great text editor)
• Excel2Latex (Plugin to export tables from Excel to Latex)

Thesis Template

If you are a student of the faculty “Biologie und Vorklinische Medizin der Universität Regensburg” in Germany, you can also download the predefined title page:
UR-Titlepage
Thesis Template with UR title page included

# 1. Install Software

If you live in Europe, you may select A4 as preferred paper size, Americans are using Letter as far as I know. So I usually choose A4. LaTeX is a software that has many additional stuff that can be added for specific things. For example, if you are a software developer, you might want to display source code of algorithms in your thesis. Therefore you want some additional functionality for LaTeX. Fortunately, there is a huge community providing stuff for anything you might imagine. These additional things are stored in so called packages. We will see later on how we can install and use them. MiKTeX is very nice to us by providing a package manager that is searching and installing packages for us. In the second option of the screenshot above, we can define if MiKTeX is allowed to install them on the fly, meaning if we are referencing a package in our code that is not yet installed, MiKTeX is recognizing it and installs it automatically. I prefer to be asked before, as I want to know which packages are being installed on my system. Remaining installation is just straight forward.

We immediately see that the program is built of three columns. Once we have started writing, the most left one will show the structure of our document, namely headings etc. The middle one is going to be our text editor where we put the LaTeX code in and the right one will show the translated PDF document. At this point I need to say, that we are going to translate our document into PDF. Originally, LaTeX is going to produce DVI files which is not used very often nowadays. Good, lets try if LaTeX already works by creating a new file by clicking the icon in the top left corner of Texmaker. Now, in the middle column, a new file has been opened. Type in the following and press save:

\documentclass{book}
\begin{document}
Test
\end{document}

Please don’t worry what that means, we will revisit that later.
If you are using Windows 8 as I do, you might wonder that you can’t save the file due to permission errors (Really Windows? Managed to have a new version that is even more silly than the old one?). The trick is that you have to provide a file extension on your own. So save the file as Test.tex not only Test. Note that .tex is the file extension indicating that this is a LaTeX file like .docx is used for Microsoft Word files.

On the bottom left of Texmaker, there are some buttons, press the Messages/Log button and you may note that at the bottom of the middle text editor column, something appeared called output window. This is a console that is providing output information of translating the text to the PDF file. Next, select from the top menu Tools->PDFLaTex and you will see that some messages are shown in the output window. Select  Tools->PDFLaTex again. Next, select Tools->View PDF and a PDF file should be displayed in the right column of Texmaker:

Congratulations, you just created your first LaTeX document and successfully translated it  to a PDF file. Please don’t worry about anything we’ve done so far, this was just to check whether our installation works or not. If you run into any trouble and you could not produce a PDF file, please check if your Texmaker has automatically identified LaTeX installation correctly. You may check that in Options->Configure Texmaker where Commands should look like:

Of course, some paths might be different.

Great, we are able to use LaTeX and can produce a PDF document from LaTeX code. But to write a fancy thesis, we need to install some more helpers.

1.3 Get Inkscape

Justifiably, you may ask: “Why do I need to install a graphics program? I just want to write my thesis and I already have plenty of graphic programs installed” OK, you do not necessarily need Inkscape, but you should use a software that can save images as vector graphics. Now, I may have finally confused you and you are angrily pressing your browsers back button know. I will clarify, there are generally speaking two kinds of images used on computers, the one and normally used ones are pixel based graphics, these are for example PNG or BMP or JPEG images like the screenshots provided in this tutorial. So, the image is built of a matrix of pixel values (squares) that do have one single color. You will have noticed that in the past while zooming an image too far. Further, there is the resolution, saying how many of these pixels exist in the image. The biggest disadvantage of this file formats is that if you are zooming the image, there are too less pixel values available and the image gets cloudy or you are seeing these pixel squares. Of course, we do not want to have cloudy images in our thesis, especially if we are providing graphs or similar stuff. The other option is to use vector graphics. A vector graphic image is simple a text file where the image is described in the sense of: “There is a black line of thickness 3 from the top left corner to the middle of the image”. The real painting of the image is done by the program that displays the image and if you zoom in, the lines, circles and whatever you may draw are still correctly defined. The end of this too long story is that we use vector graphics to get sharp images even if we zoom in extremely into the PDF file. Please note, that of course you cannot transform a pixel image or a photo into a vector graphic.

## 1.4 Even more software

Lastly, lets take some notes about other helpful software that you may use for writing your thesis.

First, I strongly recommend using any cloud drive service like Dropbox for saving your files into! Once you wrote the first 100 pages which took you probably a few month in real time and about 5 years of you age and your computer crashed for any weird reason you may be enormously happy to have a backup of your LaTeX code on a save place at the internet and you might even send me some flowers (I would prefer chocolate by the way) for giving you that hint. Further, I saved a version at the end of each day separately to be able to go back to any status of the thesis. A note for security and privacy folks, I agree with your complaints, but you can save your stuff encrypted or packed in a password saved zip file. Think about what is more critical, loosing all your work or having the risk of somebody hacking a cloud service seeing your LaTeX code?. Or make sure to save your stuff at least regularly on any independent hard drive.

Another helpful software, not only for your thesis, is called Notepad++ and is a text editor that serves anything you will need when editing text files. We will be using it later for managing our bibliography file.

Last but not least, I use Microsoft Excel to generate graphs, plots and tables as there is a nice wizard for changing styles etc. A huge advantage which I will also explain in one of the next parts of this tutorial is that you can export graphics from Excel to PDF as vector graphics. As you remember, this leads to graphs that can be scaled to any extreme.
An excellent plug-in for Excel is Excel2Latex. You will only have to download the file from the website and open it with Excel to get two additional buttons in your Excel Add-Ins menu. You can find additional information on installation at the project website.

Conclusion

In Part 1 of this tutorial, we managed to set up our system to be able to start writing our thesis and we already produced a little PDF document using LaTeX. Part 2 is going to quickly introduce LaTeX. There are plenty of more extended and better introductions to really learn how to deal with LaTeX. But I want to give a short overview of what it is and why it makes sense to use it. But you will learn how to organize your folders, files and how to build the general structure of your thesis

The most interesting part will probably be Part 3, where I gonna show you some of the hacks and tricks that I have used to make life easier and to produce a nice looking thesis (at least in my opinion).

==> Continue with Part 2